In base ten, we have ten digits that represent a number; zero through nine, or 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. When we get to 9, we shift left and start over at 10, 11, 12, 13,……19. We then go to 20.

Large decimal numbers are shown in sets of three with a comma between sets; 123,456,789.

In base sixteen, we have sixteen digits that represent a number; zero through F, or 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. When we get to F, we shift left and start over at 10, 11, 12, 13, … 1F. We then go to 20.

Large hexadecimal numbers are shown in sets of two with a space between sets; 78 9A BC DE. A set of two hex characters is called a byte.

In base two, two digits represent a number; zero and one, or 0 and 1. When we get to 1, we shift left and start over at 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, … 1111. We then go to 0001 0000.

Large binary numbers are shown in sets of four with a space between sets, and zeros are used to make all sets of four; ‘0001 0101 1101 1111’.